Author Topic: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco  (Read 31928 times)

Firenzi

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The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« on: March 04, 2010, 07:14:02 AM »

http://www.philippinefolio.com/contdetail.php?id=8&id_app2=41&id_app3=00366


Part One: Seeking the Holy Grail on Good Friday

 Finally I met him, this wonderful writer-researcher-computer hack, with the mischief of Shakespeare's Puck, the prankish antics of an Irish leprechaun, and physical size to match, whose book Some Are Smarter Than Others and pamphlet Coco-dile File played a crucial role in the election of Fidel V. Ramos as President, and whose latest Wrong Number provided the final coffin nail to the PLDT monopoly.

     Finally I met him after a year of the two of us searching for each other's address and phone number, and missing each other like Evangeline's ships in the night. I met him on Good Friday when he showed up in my house in Dasmarińas Village in the company of Ka Luis Taruc (former Huk Supremo), armed with three questions: Now that you stopped writing your columns, whom shall I quote in my future works (my articles infest his bibliographies!)? Was there ever any admission on the part of the Cojuangco family that the source of their original wealth is the hero Antonio Luna? Whatever happened to the alleged love-child born of Ysidra Cojuangco and Antonio Luna?

     The first question is answered by this series of articles which Ric Manapat helped research on and which he now calls The Story of the Century, all ready to be further elaborated on and researched by him as he did my past articles. The second and third questions are answered in the body of this series.

     Finally there is one credible witness who quotes Ysidra Cojuangco herself admitting that Antonio Luna used to bring her gold, not once but regularly during the Philippine American War and our First Republic, almost till the day he died.

     And incredibly, we have found ample evidence to conclude that the love child of Ysidra and Luna might have survived, adopted by her brother Melecio, and may be one of the four sons of Melecio: either Jose, father of ex-President Corazon Aquino; Juan, the twice-married, childless one; Antonio, the father of Ramon and the grandfather of PLDT's president; or Eduardo, the father of presidential candidate Danding Cojuangco. Which one? Well, read the rest of this series to find out.

     Holy Week in the past has always been the time of terrible accidents in my family, and I hesitated to join Ric Manapat when he suggested “tracing 30 pieces of silver on a Good Friday.” But the roads were clear of traffic, and Manapat is such a good driver that I even sat in the “death seat” near to the air conditioner without a seat belt, as he negotiated the distance to Kawit, Cavite, in 20 minutes instead of the usual two hours.

     Ric, Ka Luis and myself were joined by Dr. Steve Latorre, brilliant UP professor and ex-Opus Dei priest now working in Malacańang as my executive assistant, as we set out to find Ka Luis' friend Ka Alfredo Saulo, ex-political detainee, historian and biographer, now curator of the Aguinaldo Museum in Kawit, who is the nephew of Eulalio Saulo. Eulalio with his brothers (under General Martin Tinio) supervised, in Ka Fred Saulo's words, “the convoy of carts loaded with a huge amount of Spanish gold and silver coins seized from local treasuries in the Ilocos region, leading this convoy through forested areas up to the final destination in Paniqui, Tarlac, in the house of Ysidra Cojuangco, girlfriend of General Antonio Luna.”

     We were hoping for some old letters, some documentary evidence in the hands of Ka Fred Saulo. No such luck, but Ka Fred told us of a cousin, Encarnacion Saulo-Padilla, favorite daughter of Eulalio, almost 93 years of age, who as a young girl was a good friend and confidante of Ysidra Cojuangco herself (who died in the 1960).

     A little background here. There was an earlier account recounted by historian Carlos Quirino in an unpublished book commissioned by Danding Cojuangco, about a shipment of gold vessels commandeered by General Antonio Luna from churches in Pampanga, collected for him by Tiburcio Hilario, Pampanga governor, brought to Paniqui and entrusted to Ysidra for safekeeping before Luna left for Cabanatuan to meet Aguinaldo, only to be assassinated there.

Aha, so gold was brought by Luna from both the Ilocos (through Saulo) and Central Luzon (through Hilario) to Ysidra! With the First Republic on the run and the Americans inquiring about the gold, Ysidra dumped the gold into a well, retrieved it later and used it to build the Cojuangco fortune.

 I jokingly suggested in the presence of Cory Aquino, in a birthday party of Joker Arroyo, that the Cojuangco fortune is subject to sequestration by the PCGG.

It was also jokingly pointed out that in this case the statute of limitations defining a prescription period for the prosecution of past crimes, is in force. But apparently no one, not even Cory, read her own 1987 Constitution, Article 11, section 15, which stipulates: “[COLOR="Red"]The right of the State to recover properties unlawfully acquired by public officials or employees, from them or from their nominees or transferees, shall not be barred by prescriptions, laches or estoppel.[/COLOR]”

Our irreverent foursome, joined by Ka Fred Saulo, who would pursue their Holy Grail on Good Friday, drove to Heroes Hill, Quezon City, to see Encarnacion Saulo-Padilla. Bed-ridden but sound of mind, she was irrepressible, regaling us with stories of Dońa Ysidra, her neighbor in Sta. Rosa, Nueva Ecija, whom she met when she was 10 years old, and who was going to be her godmother, ninang sa casal, were it not for the distance and difficulty of travel.

We recorded her saying that Ysidra admitted that Luna was indeed her very close friend, and that Luna left her valuables, not once but regularly on many occasions. When asked how much value was involved, Encarnacion replied that while she is not sure of the exact value, it was certainly in huge quantities since several huge caskets were involved. Manapat asked her if she knew that there were more than one shipment. She emphatically said yes, the shipments were a regular thing!! Not only was Encarnacion a friend and confidant of Dońa Ysidra, she is also the daughter of Eulalio Saulo who confirmed to her the story as one of the military escorts of the gold shipment to Ysidra. As far as we know this is the first direct evidence of a Cojuangco (and Ysidra at that) admitting what many Luna contemporaries long alleged, that the source of the Cojuangco fortune was the gold commandeered by Luna and regularly turned over to Ysidra.

The combined assets controlled by the Cojuangcos total about P200 billion. To recover such wealth under Article 11, section 15 of the 1987 Constitution, one must go to court, and pay a filing fee of half a percent of the amount to be recovered, or P1 billion unrefundable win or lose. Who has that kind of money to risk? Ric Manapat suggests that the three wealthy branches be sued for P1 each. Once the case is won, then the rest of the P200 billion may be sued for. Or alternatively, Manapat suggests that the PCGG pursue the matter with funds appropriated by Congress, the funds merely transferred from one government pocket to another. Oh what the heck, he is probably joking, and this Good Friday caper may just be a mere exercise in the quest for historical truth.

The last question of Ric Manapat as to whatever happened to the love-child of Ysidra Cojuangco and General Antonio Luna, is answered after a quest akin to that of Sir Galahad for the Holy Grail, taking us through interesting by-ways, dead-ends, winding trails, backtracking mazes, and finally to El Camino Real, the road of destiny of the Filipino people, of General Aguinaldo, of Ysidra and Luna, and of the four sons of Melecio Cojuangco.


http://www.philippinefolio.com/contdetail.php?id=8&id_app2=41&id_app3=00366

http://newsbreak.com.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6843&Itemid=88889066
« Last Edit: March 04, 2010, 07:41:33 AM by Firenzi »
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #1 on: March 04, 2010, 07:15:38 AM »

http://www.philippinefolio.com/contdetail.php?id=8&id_app2=41&id_app3=00369


Part Four: Ysidra and Luna, The Road of Destiny


 It was the road of destiny for President Aguinaldo, from Kawit to the gates of Manila, where he was betrayed by Americans into inactivity while awaiting the arrival of its troops from the United States, then north of Manila pursued by superior American forces to Cabanatuan, to Palanan and defeat.

     El Camino Real was also the road of destiny for the starcrossed lovers, Ysidra Cojuangco and General Antonio Luna, leading from Barasoain during the Malolos Congress when love first bloomed, to Paniqui where they spent their last night together, to Cabanatuan where Luna was assassinated, hacked with bolos and perforated with bullets. The hub of El Camino Real is Manila, and there on Taft Avenue in the La Salle College, two other Antonios, both Cojuangco, died violently, shot and bayoneted along with their families by retreating Japanese invaders.

     We traveled the road of destiny, on Good Friday to Kawit, to Heroes Hill, Ayala Alabang, Manila Memorial Park; and recently for the last leg of our trail in quest of the Holy Grail, to Malolos, Paniqui and Cabanatuan.

     We dropped by the Archbishop of Tarlac Florentino F. Cinense who requested the Parish Priest of Paniqui Pedro Capitly to open to us old Baptismal Registries that dated back to 1869. Our worst fears were confirmed, the Books No. 13 and 14 covering the period from 1874 to 1902 were missing. We were hoping to find the baptismal record of Ysidra's natural son allegedly with a Chinese mestizo, or a record of its death and burial; and/or the baptismal record of Antonio Cojuangco, which would at least state the age of the baby (in days) at the time of baptism. Alas, as in the Barasoain Church records, as in the Ateneo Annual of 1918, as on his tombstone in Manila Memorial, as now in the Paniqui church records, evidence of Antonio Cojuangco's birth is missing. Incredible!

     We were told that some information might be available at the old ancestral estate of Dońa Ysidra in Paniqui itself, now occupied by ex presidential candidate Danding Cojuangco. Ric Manapat, Steve Latorre and myself, all involved in the campaign against Danding, opted to send a team of researchers from UP, led by an Ateneo graduate student, named Emmanuel, literally “sent by God.” A student of para-psychology under Father Jimmy Bulatao, he joined us upon the prompting of his divining rod.

     After being questioned at length, Emmanuel and his team gained the confidence of the old family retainers who showed them a portrait and bust of the venerable Dońa Ysidra Cojuangco, a statue of the clan founder Don Martin who migrated here from China. Also the old house, now called Y.C. Building, near the railroad terminal that once brought General Arthur MacArthur to the Cojuangcos, and from which Cojuangco rice was transported by military trains free to Manila, courtesy of MacArthur.
 
     Emmanuel was also regaled with eerie ghost stories, of a troubled soul that knock on doors, peruse books and papers, and wander around various parts of the house. But it was when he and his team were brought to the old mausoleum called Ermita, that Emmanuel began to feel the presence of something not of this world, not unlike that in the movie Wuthering Heights (from a novel by Emily Bronte) after Cathy died and her spirit haunted Heathcliff in the barren windswept moors. In the white heat of summer and dark brooding interiors of the family chapel, Emmanuel sweated under a strange spell.

     Plaques behind the altar listed each deceased family member, including two foetuses that were born dead, but there was no evidence of Ysidra's love child who supposedly died in infancy. Antonio Cojuangco and his son Antonio Jr. and those who died with them, were listed as having been killed on February 12, 1944 -- wrong day and wrong year!. The mystery of the wrong dates deepen. Outside, at the back of the chapel in an obscure corner where it lay unattended and weathered for the last ten years, was another marker probably intended to replace the marker with the wrong date.

     This marker said, “Dr. Antonio C. Cojuangco, + FEB. 13, 1945 A LA EDAD DE 45 AŃOS... “ At last another clue to Antonio's birth! If he was anywhere between 45 years of age to 45 years and eleven months when he died, he must have been born between March 1899 and February 12, 1900. But his Ateneo Annual says he was born in the year 1899; therefore we revise our estimate of his birth to between March 1899 to December 1899, in which case Antonio was conceived nine months before, between June 1898 and March 1899...this is consistent with our previous estimates, well within the time Luna was attending the Malolos Congress and fighting a war.

     The love story of Ysidra Cojuangco and Antonio Luna is a story told within the Cojuangco family itself, especially from the side of Tecla Chichioco, Ysidra's sister-in-law and the alleged mother of Antonio Cojuangco. Wouldn't Tecla's relatives at the time notice that Tecla was not at all pregnant before she allegedly gave birth to Antonio??

     The oral history came from other sources: the family of Eulalio Saulo who brought the gold of Luna from the Ilocos to Ysidra, especially Encarnacion Saulo-Padilla, who was a friend of Ysidra herself; the family of Tiburcio Hilario who also escorted the gold of Luna from Pampanga to Ysidra; from the leaders of the revolution exiled in Guam (Artemio Ricarte, Apolinario Mabini) who told their fellow exile Pedro Abad Santos who then told his fellow socialist Luis Taruc; Archbishop Florentino Cinense (who speaks Pangalatok) listening to gossip in his own hometown of Cabanatuan.

     Emmanuel the para-psychologist was fascinated by the fact that while his other brothers stayed close to the Paniqui hacienda, Antonio, like Luna the cosmopolite, was attracted to the city where he lived on Taft Avenue in Pasay, and was always addressed as Doctor, never Don like the others. He was fascinated by the temperament of Ramon and his son Tonyboy, and that of the legendary Luna, quoting Morgan & King saying that temperament is indeed an inheritable trait.

     On our way out of Paniqui, a fleet of cars with screaming sirens met us along the highway. Emmanuel panicked, saying that he is too young to die, not having tasted the joys of marriage. Suddenly with the thought that the fleet of cars may turn back to pursue us, we directed our car out of the road going south to Manila, to the road going east to Cabanatuan where Antonio Luna was assassinated. It was as if some strange spell had fallen over Emmanuel and the rest of us, compelling us almost against our will to the road of Luna's destiny, to Cabanatuan where he spent his last day on earth.

     Rushing down the stairs and seething with uncontrollable rage, Antonio Luna was met by Captain Pedro Janolina, who hacked him with a bolo on the temple above the ear. The Kawit presidential guards joined in, firing and slashing at the hapless General, who pulled out his gun and retreated to the streets, bleeding profusely from 30 mortal wounds, and he died, muttering, “Cowards! Assassins!” For an hour his body lay at the plaza under the withering afternoon sun. Then for no reason, soldiers hacked Luna's body with sadistic glee, wrapped him in a tattered mat and brought him inside the church, where a doctor noted that his intestines were falling out of his undershirt. Darkness and bats swooped down to keep him company.

     We traced the steps Antonio took in his rendezvous with death. We noted that place where he died, by the side of the church. We asked where his body is buried, and officials said the body was brought back to his home town in Batac in Ilocos Norte. We inquired later from the officials of Batac and were told that the body was buried in Cabanatuan where he was killed. If the body is neither in Cabanatuan, nor in Batac, where is it?? Mr. Pedro Ukong, researcher at the data bank of the National Historical Commission, tells us that there is no record of where General Antonio Luna was buried, and the pertinent documents relating to the relationship of Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco are missing from the archives. Is it possible that his body was retrieved by his sweetheart Ysidra Cojuangco, and buried with his love child, Antonio C. Cojuangco, who was among those massacred by the Japanese troops in La Salle during the Battle of Manila?? Is it possible that the extra skeleton in the coffin of Antonio C. Cojuangco is not that of his Chinese amah as claimed, but that of his own father? A DNA test of the two skeletons would ferret out the truth and lay this matter to rest. Antonio C. Cojuangco himself died a horrendous death along with his family during the World War II.

     Antonio Cojuangco and his family sought refuge in La Salle College trying to dodge American bombs randomly dropped on Manila, when suddenly the Japanese soldiers went on a shooting and bayoneting rampage. He died bleeding of multiple wounds, as did his wife Victoria, his son Antonio Jr., daughter Trinidad, and daughter-in-law Nene de las Alas, the bride of 18 months of survivor Ramon Cojuangco who found himself on that tragic day, a widower, an orphan, and a surrogate father to sister Lourdes.

     We all ended up in the deepening dusk on the street where Luna was killed, and on the plaza where he lay dead, hacked and butchered, and we thought of his tragic love Ysidra, and the rivers of blood that flowed from the two other Antonios sprawled in the corridors of La Salle.

     It was then that Emmanuel murmured, “Peace be with you, Antonio Luna, you restless tormented soul. You are no longer dead. Your noble blood lives on in the veins of another man, another Antonio.”

     Again congratulations, Tonyboy Luna.

     (SMART FILE, issue 014 & 015, April, 1994, with data added February 16, 1998)


http://www.philippinefolio.com/contdetail.php?id=8&id_app2=41&id_app3=00369
« Last Edit: March 04, 2010, 07:18:30 AM by Firenzi »
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #2 on: March 04, 2010, 08:10:12 AM »
http://newsbreak.com.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6843&Itemid=88889066



Where did the Cojuangcos’ wealth really come from?


Written by Earl G. Parreño    
Thursday, 24 September 2009  
Neighbors didn’t believe the family made it all from rice milling, trading, and money lending

(Fourth of 9 parts)

At the turn of the century, with the Spanish forces decisively defeated by the Filipino revolutionaries, the first Philippine Republic was established.  In ceremonies held at the Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan, on January 23, 1899, General Emilio Aguinaldo was proclaimed president of the republic and the Constitution was approved. Unfortunately, the republic did not live long as the Americans colonized the nation and crushed the republic in a bloody war that lasted until 1902.

The Philippine-American War, which had begun in February 4, 1899, caused unparalleled grief to millions of Filipinos. The US occupation army killed an estimated 200,000 people as the Filipino revolutionaries persisted in their struggle to keep the country free from foreign rule. The economy was in shambles, unable to bear the brunt of the war that began in 1896. The fortunes of many prominent families dwindled but a lucky few—like the Cojuangcos—prospered from it.

By 1901, the Cojuangco landholdings, under the name of Ingkong Jose, Ysidra or Melecio, had extended to other towns in Tarlac like Gerona, Camiling, La Paz and Moncada as well as to the adjoining provinces of Nueva Ecija and Pangasinan. In less than five years after resettling in Tarlac, the Cojuangco family acquired almost 2,000 hectares of agricultural land along the railway in Paniqui, well up to Nueva Ecija and Pangasinan.

The family’s economic bonanza was indeed impressive, especially since it was realized at a time when agricultural production in Tarlac was in a dismal state. Rice fields then were covered by sand left by floods. Government reports during this period indicated that drought and locusts had destroyed many crops. But the fortune acquired by the Cojuangcos had puzzled many of their neighbors even then. They knew the family depended on the income from their rice milling and trading business for the money that they lent out. With the calamities that had plagued rice lands, however, the neighbors wondered, surely the Cojuangco money could not have all come from rice milling and trading alone.

It was all the fruit of hard work, frugality and good business sense, they were told. Still, this explanation did not stop stories from swirling around about the “real” source of the Cojuangcos’ now-fabled wealth. One account, written in 1987 by Hilarion Henares, the newspaper columnist who coined the moniker “Pacman” for Danding, cited a study reportedly made by Carlos Quirino, the former director of the National Library. Henares wrote in the Philippine Daily Inquirer:

General Antonio Luna, as chief of staff of the revolutionary army, had collected a sizeable sum from contributions with which to pay his soldiers. The person who collected for him was Tiburcio Hilario, Pampanga governor. Hilario’s granddaughter, Ambassador Rafaelita Hilario Soriano, relates that her grandfather kept the gold and silver in sacks, including gold plates, chalices, and other church treasures taken from Bacolor, San Fernando, and Guagua.

After losing an encounter at Sto. Tomas, Pampanga, Luna ordered Hilario to bring the valuables to Tarlac, where the revolutionary government planned to establish its capital. General Luna, so the story goes, then turned over the treasure to Ysidra Cojuangco, then an attractive 32-year-old woman, for safekeeping. Then Luna proceeded to Cabanatuan to meet with Aguinaldo, there to be assassinated by [Aguinaldo’s] troops.

Why did the general entrust Ysidra with the treasure? Rumors had it that she was his sweetheart and lover, and he entrusted her to keep the treasure till he returned…
Another account said that General Luna sired Ysidra’s son, who was also named Antonio but was claimed by Melecio and Tecla as their third son. The story goes that during the Philippine-American war, Luna had tried to control the Manila-Dagupan railway since this was a vital facility for communications and transportation, as it was during the earlier war against Spain. It was supposedly in one of Luna’s trips to the north that he met Ysidra, who lived very near the train station. And when the Filipino troops were retreating to the north during the war against the US, he may have renewed his ties with her.
 
 
http://newsbreak.com.ph/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6843&Itemid=88889066

« Last Edit: March 04, 2010, 08:12:52 AM by Firenzi »
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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Batbat ang nakaraan ng mga kuwento ng pagtataksil ng mga tao sa kanilang sinumpaang pag-ibig – sa bayan man o sa kasintahan.

Ganito ang kuwento ng trahedyang pag-ibig ni Antonio Luna, dakilang heneral ng Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano, matinitk na taktisyan at tahasang anti-Amerikano. Dahil bukod sa pinatay siya mismo ng kapwa Pilipinong mga sundalo, ipinagkanulo din ng naging kasintahan ni Luna ang tiwalang ipinagkaloob sa kanya ng heneral.

Metanoya

Sa unang bahagi ng himagsikan laban sa mga Espanyol, hindi lumahok si Luna sa Katipunan. Wala siyang tiwala na kaya nang magsulong ng isang armadong rebolusyon ang mga Pilipinong walang pag-aaral at walang pagsasanay sa digmaan. Kinundena pa niya ang rebolusyon at hinikayat ang mga nag-alsa na sumuko sa mga Espanyol.

Ngunit nang ipatapon siya ng mga kolonyalista sa Espanya dahil miyembro raw siya ng Katipunan, nagbago ang pagtingin niya sa rebolusyon. Isinumpa niya ang lahat ng kanyang nasabi o ginawa laban sa Katipunan. At lumahok na siya sa ikalawang bahagi ng himagsikan.

Nang itatag ang Kongreso ng Malolos noong Setyembre 1898, hinirang ni Aguinaldo si Luna bilang isa sa mga kumisyuner. Ngunit nahati ang Kongreso sa paksiyong nagtaguyod ng agad na kalayaan at pakikidigma laban sa bantang kolonyalismong Amerikano, at sa mga ilustradong nakipagsabwatan sa bagong mga mananakop na nagpoprotekta sa kanilang kapangyarihan sa ekonomiya at pulitika. Dahil sa paninindigan ni Luna laban sa mga Amerikano, pinag-initan siya ng mga lider ng Malolos. Kasama rito sina Aguinaldo, Felipe Buencamino, at Pedro Paterno, na nais makipagkasundo sa mga mananakop.

Nawawalang Anak

Ngunit bukod sa panunuligsa sa mga konserbatibo’t mapagkanulo, maraming historyador ang nagsasabi na may iba pang kuwento ang pamamalagi ni Heneral Luna sa Malolos noong 1899.

Nasa Malolos ang dating tinitirhang mansiyon ng mga Cojuangco. Pagbukas ng Kongreso ng Malolos, sinasabing nakitira sa mga Cojuangco ang ilang prominenteng lider ng gobyerno, kabilang na si Luna. Dito nagsimula ang kuwento umano ng pag-iibigan nina Luna at Ysidra Cojuangco, matriyarka ng angkang Cojuangco sa Paniqui, Tarlac.

Nagbunga, diumano, ng isang anak ang pag-iibigan nina Luna at Cojuangco.

Ayon sa pananaliksik ni Hilarion Henares, dating propesor at kolumnista, nilisan ng mga Cojuangco ang Malolos patungong Paniqui, Tarlac upang makatakas sa kahihiyang dulot ng pagkabuntis diumano ni Ysidra na walang kilalang asawa.

Ang naturang “anak sa pagkakasala,” ay nabuhay at ipinaampon daw sa kapatid ni Ysidra na si Melecio. Ayon pa kay Henares, marami ang ebidensiya na si Antonio Cojuangco Sr., lolo sa tuhod ni Tonyboy Cojuangco (asawa ng artistang si Gretchen Barretto), ang siyang nawawalang “anak sa pagkakasala” ng dalawang magkasintahan.

Nawawalang Pera

Sa huling taon ng buhay ni Heneral Luna, ipinatago diumano niya sa kasintahang si Ysidra ang mga kayamanan ng rebolusyonaryong gobyerno. Ayon sa historyador na si Alfredo Saulo:

The convoy of carts loaded with a huge amount of Spanish gold and silver coins seized from local treasuries in the Ilocos region, leading this convoy through forested areas up to the final destination in Paniqui, Tarlac, in the house of Ysidra Cojuangco, girlfriend of General Antonio Luna.
Nang paslangin si Luna noong Hunyo 5, 1899 sa Cabanatuan, sa utos diumano ni Heneral Aguinaldo, naiwan kay Ysidra ang mga ginto ng rebolusyon. At dahil hindi hayagan ang relasyon ng magkasintahan, hindi alam ng karamihan sa mga lider kung saan o kanino iniwan ni Luna ang mga ginto.

Hindi na isinauli ni Ysidra ang mga ginto.

Malaki ang ebidensiya, ayon kay Henares, na ang mga gintong ipinatago ni Luna kay Ysidra ang dahilan ng biglang pagyaman diumano ng mga Cojuangco. Matagal na ring alam ng mga viejas familias sa Gitnang Luzon na sa rebolusyonaryong gobyerno ni Aguinaldo at ng Katipunan nanggaling ang kayamanan ng pamilyang Cojuangco.

Upang itago raw ang tunay na pinagmulan ng kanilang yaman, sinasabing ipinabura ng pamilyang Cojuangco ang lahat ng rekord na maaaring magpatotoo na anak nga ni Heneral si Antonio Sr. Nawawala ang kanyang mga rekord ng pagkabuhay sa mga simbahan ng Malolos at Paniqui, at maging sa Ateneo de Manila, kung saan siya nag-aral.

Kung paniniwalaan ang historyador na si Dr. Vivencio Jose, pataksil na ipinapatay ni Aguinaldo si Luna. Maingay at delikado kasi siyang katunggali hindi lamang para sa kapangyarihan ni Aguinaldo, kundi ng mismong mga mananakop na Amerikano. Isang malaking kawalan sa mga nakikidigmang Pilipino ang pagkamatay ni Luna. Malaking kataksilan din ang di pagsauli diumano ng kasintahang si Ysidra ng mga gintong malaki pa sana ang maitutulong sa rebolusyon.

Kataksilan at kasinungalingan diumano ang naging pundasyon ng kayamanan ng mga Cojuangco, tulad din ng kataksilan at kasinungalingan na naging pundasyon ng Republika ni Aguinaldo.

Sanggunian:

Agoncillo, Teodoro. “Antonio Luna: The hero who never won a battle.” sa Weekend, 8 Hunyo 1993.

Henares, Hilarion Jr. “Antonio Luna’s Missing Descendant.” sa Smart File 14-15, 1993.

Jose Vivencio R. “The Rise and Fall of Antonio Luna.” Quezon City, UP, 1972.

Some of Henares’ claims can also be read here and here.

http://krguda.wordpress.com/category/history/
 :smoke:
« Last Edit: March 05, 2010, 10:00:01 PM by Firenzi »
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #5 on: March 07, 2010, 01:11:19 AM »

Antonio Luna Story

It was the height of the war between the United States and the Philippines when rumours that Gen. Antonio Luna was going to launch a coup d' etat against then President Emilio Aguinaldo.

To prevent him from carrying out his alleged plan, soldiers close to the president hacked Gen. Luna to death.

Strangely, not one of the soldiers involved in the general's death was punished.

Historian Augusto Deviana shares that Gen. Aguinaldo might have had a motive in having Gen. Luna's killed, a widely shared opinion that Rep. Jun Abaya disagrees with saying that his grandfather only did what he had to do to protect the country's freedom.

Witness a dramatization of what transpired in this period of our history directed by Tara Illenberger.


***************************************************

Kasagsagan ng digmaan sa pagitan ng Estados Unidos at Pilipinas noong 1899 nang kumalat ang balita na balak daw agawin ni Heneral Antonio Luna ang pagka presidente kay Heneral Emilio Aguinaldo.

May balak daw itong maglunsad ng coup d'etat. Ito ang sinasabing nagudyok sa malalapit kay Emilio Aguinaldo na wakasan ang buhay ni Hen. Luna.

Pinagtataga ng mahigit apatnapung beses ng mga sundalong Pilipino si Hen. Luna hanggang sa siya'y mamatay. Sa paglilitis na isinagawa pagkatapos ng pagpaslang, wala ni isang sundalo na kasama sa kaniyang pagpatay ang nahatulan.

Pakinggan ang kuwento ng mananalaysay na si Augusto Deviana kung bakit may motibo si Emilio Aguinaldo na ipaligpit si Antonio Luna isang opinyon na 'di sinasangayunan ni Rep. Jun Abaya na sinabing ginawa lamang ng kaniyang lolo ang nararapat para maitaguyod ang kalayaan ng ating bansa.

Tunghayan ang pagsasadula sa mga pangyayaring ito sa ating kasaysayan sa direksyon ni Tara Illenberger.


http://www.gmanews.tv/story/175702/antonio-luna-story




Youtube Videos :


HENERAL ANTONIO LUNA CASE UNCLOSED PART 1 OF 3

http://www.youtube.com/v/YBaYTzZqCLY?hl=en_US&fs=1



HENERAL ANTONIO LUNA CASE UNCLOSED PART 2 OF 3

http://www.youtube.com/v/m0ULlu2yrTM?hl=en_US&fs=1



HENERAL ANTONIO LUNA CASE UNCLOSED PART 3 OF 3

http://www.youtube.com/v/7W_BHJl9S_E?hl=en_US&fs=1
« Last Edit: March 07, 2010, 01:16:50 AM by Firenzi »
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #6 on: March 07, 2010, 05:44:58 PM »



Antonio Luna was a Filipino pharmacist, chemist, and Filipino-American War general known as General Article One.

Birth
Antonio Luna was born in Urbiztondo Street, Binondo, Manila on October 29, 1866 to Don Joaquin Luna and Doña Laureana Novicio, a prominent and rich couple from Ilocos Norte. His older brother was Juan Luna, the famous painter.

Education
He was enrolled in the Ateneo de Manila University where he took up literature and chemistry. He graduated with highest honors, obtaining his bachelor of arts from Ateneo in 1881. He then enrolled in the University of Santo Tomas where his paper entitled "Dos cuerpos fundamentales de quimica" was awarded first place. At the invitation of his brother, he went to Spain where he studied pharmacy in Barcelona and medicine in Madrid. He obtained his Licentiate in Pharmacy at the University of Barcelona and Licentiate in Pharmacy at the Central University of Madrid.

In Madrid, he started writing in La Solidaridad, the organ of the Propaganda Movement in Spain seeking reforms to alleviate conditions in the Philippines. One particular article he wrote for La Solidaridad, entitled "Impresiones," ridiculed the Spaniards in the Philippines. Writing under the pen name Taga-ilog he also contributed articles and technical papers to European scientific journals and magazines. He wrote the famous article entitled "El hematozoario paludismo" which was acclaimed by the European scientific community.

Antonio Luna was well-traveled: he toured Europe, meeting prominent bacteriologists, chemists, and pharmacists. Aside from these interests, Antonio Luna was also a master fencer, skilled sharpshooter, avid musician, and a military strategist.

In Madrid, the Filipino community there knew that Antonio Luna had a fiery temper and was prone to react violently. When a newspaper editor named Mir Deas uttered insults against Luna, Luna renamed the editor Mier Das (Spanish foul language), challenged him to a duel and on being rejected, spat in his face. Whenever there was a quarrel that involved the Luna brothers, Rizal would dismiss them as "cosas de los Lunas."

The Philippine Revolution

In May 1894, through a commission by the Spanish government, Antonio Luna returned to the Philippines to study native contagious diseases. He was also appointed as a chemist in Manila, besting notable Filipinos such as Leon Ma. Guerrero and Antonio Casanovas. As the municipal chemist, Luna was instrumental in the analysis of the Sibul mineral waters. In 1898, he became the municipal laboratory director.

Rizal asked Luna to join the Katipunan to serve as liason between the masses and the rich; but Luna refused, stating that a revolution was premature. When the Katipunan was finally discovered by the Spanish authorities, Luna was imprisoned and tortured. The Spanish authorities made false claims that his friends had implicated him in the Katipunan revolution as one of its prominent members. Weakened by mental and physical torture, Luna decided to reveal all that he knew about the Katipunan. He denounced the Katipunan and revealed the names of his friends who were members of the secret society. In return for his cooperation, he was exiled to Spain in 1897 and was locked up in Madrid Prison. He was later released through the assistance of a government official.

While the revolution raged in the Philippines, Antonio Luna was in Madrid and different parts of Europe. While traveling Europe, he studied military tactics, strategy, field fortifications, and artillery. He studied military tactics under Belgian general Gerard Leman.

The Filipino-American War

With the defeat of Spain in the Spanish-American War, Luna returned to the country to give his aid in the establishment of the Filipino republic headed by Emilio Aguinaldo. With a recommendation issued by Felipe Agoncillo, Antonio Luna presented himself in Cavite during the last week of July 1898. Luna rose through the ranks and became brigadier-general and director of war by September. By November, Aguinaldo promoted him to full general.

Luna recognized that a war between the American forces and Filipino troops would begin and began pressuring both Aguinaldo and Mabini to attack the American troops while they were still waiting for additional reinforcement from the United States. Due to his background in military tactics and fortifications, he urged the building of a systematic network of trenches, bunkers, and artillery positions from Caloocan to Novaliches. He argued that the main line of attack for the Americans would be to capture the Manila-Dagupan Railway then quickly drive to the north, capturing major towns and cities, crippling the Philippine Republic. In creating a defensive line from Novaliches to Caloocan, the Filipino troops would stop or delay the American advance while inflicting heavy casualties in both manpower and supplies. Luna together with his friend, Gen. Jose Alejandrino, forwarded their reports to Aguinaldo and general headquarters but their plans were not implemented. Luna was also instrumental in bringing to the Filipino cause important Spanish mestizo officers who were willing to fight the Americans. These officers not only increased the total number of troops in Luna's command but also shared their battlefield experience that they had gained in their military service with Spain. Some of these officers who distinguished themselves in the field were Manuel Sityar, Jose Torres Bugallon, Ramon Soriano, Col. Queri, and Rosendo Simon de Pajarillo.

With the outbreak of the Filipino-American War, the sudden advance of the American forces on Filipino troops positions, and the fall of Caloocan to American hands, Luna, as Director of War formulated a counterattack that would capture Manila from the Americans. Luna first directed Generals Llanera, Garcia, and Hizon to attack Caloocan as a diversion for American forces while the main Filipino force consisting of Luna, Generals Licerio Geronimo, Pio del Pilar, and Miguel Malvar from the north, east, west, and south respectively would assault Manila. As an added reenforcement, he asked Malolos to send the Tinio Brigade, an experienced and well-organized army commanded by Manuel Tinio but his request was overruled.

The attack was going well until Luna relieved the exhausted Pampango soldiers who were attacking La Loma. He ordered the Kawit Companies headed by Captain Janolino to replace the exhausted Pampango soldiers but the companies headed by Janolino refused and said that they would only take orders from Aguinaldo himself. With the refusal of the Kawit Companies to replace their troops, La Loma was not captured and the attack on Manila collapsed. Angry with the officers' refusal to obey a direct order, Luna ordered the Kawit Companies to be sent to the rear, disarmed and tried by a military court. But when this order was received by Aguinaldo, he reinstated and rearmed the mutinous Kawit Companies.

Luna's hot temper alienated him from people close to Aguinaldo. Individuals began logging complaints against the general. They reported abuses such as his execution of a Chinese without trial, his issuance of an order threatening a firing squad for those who disobeyed his orders, and his command that Caloocan be burned. They also circulated among the military officers and government officials of the Aguinaldo Cabinet the rumor that he was a paid Spanish spy. Along with this were rumors like his seizing of a whip to drive out women and children from a train that was supposed to be used as a military transport and his disarming of a company of presidential guards that showed insubordination, which were perceived by others as too violent and destructive to the Filipino cause. His position that no American peace proposals should be entertained put him at odds with Pedro Paterno, Felipe Buencamino, and other autonomists. While traveling to meet an American peace commission, the general slapped Buencamino and called him a traitor and arrested Paterno.

Since Luna prescribed the same punishment -- death -- for all offenses, he was called General Article One. In the Battle of Bagbag, Luna's hot temper was vented against General Tomas Mascardo. When the Americans attacked Bagbag, Luna asked Mascardo for additional reinforcement. Mascardo not only ignored the orders but instead attended the town fiesta of Arayat. Luna, in a fit of rage, left the battlefront to confront the mutinous general. In his absence, Bagbag fell into American hands.

With the fall of Bagbag and other neighboring towns, Central and Northern Luzon were open for the Americans to occupy. Luna directed his subordinates to turn Mountain Province into a guerrilla fortress against the Americans. He believed that although the Americans could never be defeated in a setpiece battle, guerrilla warfare could be effective against them. Luna argued that because of American deaths and military expenditures, the American public would be forced to stop their government from continuing the war. To achieve this aim, prisoners were told to plant camote and other food crops in Mountain Province, church bells were requisitioned, melted and used as bullets, rice harvests were commandeered in several Pangasinan towns, and officers surveyed the areas around Mountain Province.

Individuals angry with Luna perceived these preparations as a plan to seize the government from Aguinaldo. Suspicions were also aroused when men close to Aguinaldo saw Luna's tight hold on the army that he personally commanded. They were also afraid of Luna's insistence on the establishment of a dictatorial government composed of his chosen men. Because of this temper and stubbornness, certain individuals conspired to eliminate the general.

Death

After the fall of Bagbag and Central Luzon to American hands, Luna transferred his staff to Pangasinan and established the Department of War in the town of Bayambang. On 4 June 1899, Luna received a telegram from Aguinaldo directing him to proceed to Cabanatuan to confer with the Aguinaldo government. With the receipt of the telegram, Luna, his aides and 25 cavalry soldiers departed for Cabanatuan. Upon reaching a destroyed bridge near the town proper of Cabanatuan on 5 June 1899, Luna entered the town accompanied by Col. Francisco Roman and Capt. Eduardo Rusca, leaving behind them their escort.

When he entered the church convent and saw a soldier outside whom he had degraded for cowardice in Angeles, Luna shouted at him and demanded to know who reinstated him. The soldier replied that the men upstairs had restored him to his previous position. The volatile Luna, his fist clenched, then hit a soldier that did not salute him. Upon entering the room of the convent house, he met Felipe Buencamino and started to argue with him when a rifle shot was heard outside. He was confronted by Captain Janolino of the Kawit Companies and was then hacked in the head, shot, and stabbed by the Kawit Companies members. Bleeding from his wounds, General Luna rapidly managed to draw his revolver and fire several shots at his attackers while shouting "Cowards! Traitors! Assassins!"

When Roman and Rusca saw their general being attacked, they immediately ran to aid him. Roman ran across the street but was gunned down while Rusca, shot in the leg, was saved when he hid in the church.

Buencamino emerged, emptied Luna's pockets and took the telegram that Luna received. Luna was then buried in the clothes that he had on when he died.

After the death of Antonio Luna, his staff and sympathizers were eliminated. Officers who served under Luna were arrested, removed from the army or assassinated. Maj. Manuel Bernal was arrested, tortured, and killed while his brother Capt. Jose Bernal was arrested, released, then assassinated in the battlefield. No trial or punishment was carried out against the assassins and plotters in the murder of General Antonio Luna.

http://en.wikipilipinas.org/index.php?title=Antonio_Luna
« Last Edit: March 07, 2010, 05:51:45 PM by Firenzi »
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

israeli

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #7 on: November 06, 2011, 08:34:18 PM »
General Luna being the source of the wealth of the entire Cojuangco clan? interesting. ;)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gevTmyWtHVo
"I'm very determined. If I decide what something is worth doing, then I'll put my heart and soul to it. The whole ground can be against me, but if I know it is right, I'll do it. That's the business of a leader." - Lee Kuan Yew

O-4794

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #8 on: November 06, 2011, 08:59:56 PM »
One thing that could be said about Gen. Luna is that he upheld the highest traditions of the Service especially with his liaisons with the fairer sex.  :thumbsup:

Firenzi

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #9 on: November 07, 2011, 01:37:12 PM »



AQUINO COJUANGCO: FACTS THEY DONT WANT YOU TO KNOW.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gevTmyWtHVo
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #10 on: November 07, 2011, 02:36:07 PM »



Ang romansa at trahedya ni Heneral Antonio Luna (isang kuwento ng pag-ibig)

 

Batbat ang nakaraan ng mga kuwento ng pagtataksil ng mga tao sa kanilang sinumpaang pag-ibig – sa bayan man o sa kasintahan.
 
Ganito ang kuwento ng trahedyang pag-ibig ni Antonio Luna, dakilang heneral ng Digmaang Pilipino-Amerikano, matinitk na taktisyan at tahasang anti-Amerikano. Dahil bukod sa pinatay siya mismo ng kapwa Pilipinong mga sundalo, ipinagkanulo din ng naging kasintahan ni Luna ang tiwalang ipinagkaloob sa kanya ng heneral.


Pls read more at the below web link:

http://krguda.wordpress.com/category/history/

" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

Firenzi

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  • Posts: 1493
" Unhappy is the land that needs a hero "

" All Religion must be tolerated, for every man must get to Heaven in his own way. "

"Being gullible by supporting the corrupted status quo, is tragic.

" The radical of one century is the conservative of the next.  The radical invents the views. When he has worn them out, the conservative adopts them."
                    - Mark Twain  "

estovir

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Re: The love story of Gen. Antonio Luna and Ysidra Cojuangco
« Reply #12 on: November 07, 2011, 08:23:01 PM »


AQUINO COJUANGCO: FACTS THEY DONT WANT YOU TO KNOW.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gevTmyWtHVo

The part about the jingle is a bit disturbing.
Esto Vir!